Published Jun 13, 2017
Peter Rome


Part I of this paper discussed issues involving the many terms adopted by the various manipulative sciences health professions. These have appeared in a number of formats. In particular, it presents terminology surrounding components of the clinical entity identified by chiropractors as the Vertebral Subluxation Complex (VSC) or chiropractic subluxation. While it may not constitute hard evidence, the plethora of euphemisms would support the identity of the clinical finding - a VSC or subluxation complex of other articulations. (Chiropr J Australia 2017;45:90-129)
Abstract 906 | PDF Downloads 713



Medical Terminology

1. Adams CBT, Logue V. Studies in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. II The movement and contour of the spine in relation to the neural complications of cervical spondylosis. Brain 1971;94:569-586.
2. Terrett AJC. The search for the subluxation: an investigation of medical literature to 1985. Chiropractic History. 1987;7(1):29-22.
3. Gatterman MI. The vertebral subluxation syndrome: is a rose by another name less thorny? J Canad Chiropr Assoc 1992;36(2):102-104
4. Mirza SK, White AA, Panjabi MM. Evaluating instability in cervical spine injuries. Part 1: The occipital-cervical junction. J Musculoskel Med. 1996;13(3):59078.
5. Maigne R. Orthopaedic medicine: A new approach to vertebral manipulations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas; 1972.
6. Hadley LA. Apophyseal subluxation. Disturbances in about the intervertebral foramen causing back pain. J Bone Joint Surg 1936;XVIII(2):428-33.
7. Eder M, Tilscher H. Chirotherapie. Hippokrates Verlag, Stuttgart 1988. (Chiropractic therapy: Diagnosis and treatment.. Translated by Gengenbach MS, Aspen Publisher 1990. (Chapman-Smith Report July 1990)
8. Gatterman MI. Foundations of chiropractic – Subluxation. 2nd ed. St Louis, Miss. Elsevier Mosby. 2005;6-7.
9. Bono CM, Vaccaro AR, Fehlings M, et al. Measurement techniques for upper cervical spine injuries. Spine 2007;32(5):591-600.
10. Flanagan MF. Relationship between CSF and fluid dynamics in the neural canal. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11(6):489-492.
11. Dishman RW. Static and dynamic components of the chiropractic subluxation complex: A literature review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1988;11(2):98-107.
12. Leach RA. The chiropractic theories. Principles and clinical applications. 3rd Edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1994.
13. Lantz CA. Back to basics... A review of the evolution of chiropractic concepts of subluxation. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 1995;2(2):1-10.
14. Gatterman MI. Whiplash: a patient-centred approach to management. St Louis: Elsevier Mosby.2012.
15. Brantingham JW. A critical look at the subluxation hypothesis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988;11:130-132.
16. Dishman RW. Review of the literature supporting a scientific basis for chiropractic subluxation complex. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1985;8:163-174.
17. Anon. Vertebral subluxation. (Brochure). Back Talk Systems, 1985.
18. Epstein BS. The spine. A radiological text and atlas. Philadelphia; Lea & Febiger: 1969.
19. Butler DS. (Ed). Mobilisation of the nervous system. Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne. 1991.
20. Anon. A 120 hour certification program in chiropractic rehabilitation. (Brochure) Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College Centre for Post Graduate Studies 1996.
21. Adams CBT, Logue V. Studies in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. II. Movement of the cervical roots, dura and cords, and their relation to the course of their extrathecal roots. Brain, 1971;94:557-564.
22. Cailliet R. Neck and arm pain. (pp 61) 3rd printing. FA Davis Co., Philadelphia. 1967
23. Keats TE, Anderson MW. Atlas of normal roentgen variants that may simulate disease. 7th edn. St Louis: Mosby Inc. 2001.
24. Henderson CNR, Gregory D, Cramer GD; Zhang Q, DeVocht JW, Fornier JT, Introducing the external fixation link for studying spine fixation and misalignment: Part II – Biomechanical features. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2007;30(3):239-245.
25. Kent C. Models pf vertebral subluxation: a review. J Vertebral subluxation research. 1996;1(1):1-6.
26. Bollier W. The spine and internal disease. Annals Swiss Chiropr Assn. 1961;2:167-182.
27. Penning L. Nonpathologic and pathologic relationships between the lower cervical vertebrae. Am J Radiol Rad Therapy Nuc Med 1964;91(5):1036-1050.
28. Mooney V, Robertson J. The facet syndrome. Clin Orthop Related Research. 1976;115:149-156.
29. Collins CK. Physical therapy management of complex regional pain syndrome I in a 14-year-old patient using strain counter-strain: A case report. J Man Manipulative Ther 2007;15(1):25-41.(Abstract)
30. Kuchera ML, Blackorby E, Heard J. Redesign and construction of a device for objective measurement of segmental autonomic changes in man. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1990;90(9):844.
31. Peters R. Subluxation: Historical perspective. Chiropr J Aust. 2009;39(4):143-150.
32. Gatterman MI. Subluxation – historical perspective. Chiropr J Aust 2009;39(4):151-164
33. Davis PT. Gait (gravity-assisted intermittent traction): a motion-assisted form of distractive manipulation. Chiropr Technique 1995;7(4):125-130.
34. Gunn CC. "Prespondylosis" and some pain syndromes following denervation supersensitivity. Spine 1980;5:185-92.
35. Watkins RJ. Subluxation terminology since 1746. J Canad Chiropr Assn. 1968;Fourth quarter:20-24.
36. Christian G, Grant B, Harvey M, et al. Letter to the Editor. Your Voice. Dec;1996:15.
37. Macario-Gioia B, Rivaro R. [Validity of manipulation medicine in minor intervertebral pathology of the cervical spine.] Ann Osp Maria Vittoria Torino 1984;27(1-6):93-99.
38. Hadley LA. Intervertebral joint subluxation, body impingement and foramen encroachment with nerve root change. Am J Roent Radiol Ther 1951;65:337-402.
39. Pearson JK. Stiff neck: An occupational hazard. Patient Care 1995;July:172-174.
40. Slosberg M. Validating chiropractic: documenting the scientific basis of clinical practice. Melbourne. (Lecture notes) 1993, p6.
41. Hubka MJ. Another critical look at the subluxation hypothesis. Chiropractic Technique. 1990;2(1):27-29
42. Haldeman S. Spinal manipulative therapy. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1983;179:62-70.
43. Francis RS. Manipulation under anaesthesia: Historical considerations. International MUA Academy of physicians. www.muaphysicians.com/historical.html
44. Vance P, Gamberg B. Computer-assisted EMG paraspinal scanning. Electromyography. (Circa 1992)
45. Glousman RE, Jobe FW. Occult subluxation especially easy to miss in the athlete: `How to detect and manage the unstable shoulder. J Musculoskeletal Med 1990;March:93-109.
46. MacDonald RS. Primary dysfunction of the spine. J Interprofessional Care. 1988;3:27-33.
47. Haldeman SC. The pathophysiology of the spinal subluxation. in: The research status of spinal manipulative therapy. U.S. Dept HEW. NINCDS Monograph # 15. pp.217-226. 1975.
48. Uhrenholt L, Grunnet-Nilsson N, Hartvigsen J. Cervical spine lesions after road traffic accidents. Spine 2002;27(17):1934-1941.
49. Hunter OK, Freeman MD. Cervical sprain and strain. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/306176-print
50. Colloca CJ, Gunzburg R, Freeman BJ, Szpalski M, Afifi M, Moore RJ. Biomechanical quatification of pathological manipulatable spinal lesions: an invivo ovine model of spondylolysis and intervertebral disc degeneration. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2012;35(5):354-366.
51. Curtin P. McElwain J. Assessment of the “nearly normal: cervical spine radiograph: C2-C3 pseudosubluxation in an adult with whiplash injury. Emerg Med J 2005;22:907-908.
52. Bernard TN, Kirkaldy-Willis WH. Recognising specific characteristics of non-specific low back pain. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1987;217:266-280.
53. Cintron E, Gilula LA, Murphy WA, Gehweller JA. The widened disk space: A sign of cervical hyperextension injury. Radiology, 1981;141:639-644.
54. Pate D. The pseudosubluxation of C2 or C3. Dynamic Chiropractic Sept 26. 1990;20-1.
55. Wortzman G, Dewar FP. Rotary fixation of the atlantoaxial joint: rotational atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiology 1968:90:479-487.
56. Wood KW. Acute torticollis” chiropractic therapy and management. Chiropr Tech. 1991;3(3):105-108.
57. Dalgleish PH. Ortho-spondylo-dysathrics manipulation and the forgotten spinal joints. Rheumatism 1960;16:98-109.
58. Patterson MM. A model mechanism for spinal segmental facilitation. JAOA 1976;76(1):62-72.
59. Palmer DD. The chiropractors adjustor. Portland: Portland Printing House Co; 1910.
60. Hohl M. Baker HR. The atlanto-axial joint. J Bone Joint Surt 1954;46-A(5):1739-1753.
61. FlesiaJM. The vertebral subluxation complex: an integrative perspective. ICA Review Chiropr. 1992;48:25-27.
62. Bogduk N. Local anaesthetic blocks of the second cervical ganglion: a technique with application in occipital headache. Cephalalgia 1981;1(1):41-50.
63. Ramiris RM. What can chiropractic therapy do to you after an accident. http://africancommunityhealthinitiative.info/tag/chiropractic-center. 2012
64. Kunert W. Functional disorders of internal organs due to vertebral lesions. CIBA Symp. 1965;13(3):85-96.
65. Schafer RC. Upper back and thoracic spine trauma. www.chiro.org/rc_schafer/monograph_23.shtml, 1997.
66. Lantz CA. The vertebral subluxation complex. ICA Review Chiropr. 1989;45:37-61.
67. Kirkaldy-Willis W, Mierau D. The three-joint complex revisited. JNMS 1995;3(3)115-121.
68. Bolton PS. Neurology review & update. Newsletter. Newcastle: The University of Newcastle Research Associates 1996;1(1):2.
69. Steiman I. The non-cerebrovascular complications of chiropractic manipulation. Neurology. (Letters) 1985;35:937-938.
70. Schafer RC. General spinal biomechanics. In: Clinical biomechanics: musculoskeletal actions and reactions. 2nd ed. Williams & Wilkins. 1997. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/General_Spinal_Biomechanics.html
71. Bogduk N, Twomey LT. Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine. 2nd Edn.1992. Churchill Livingstone, Melbourne. PP 79.
72. Davydov OV. [Pathogenesis and treatment of abdominal pain spinal syndrome.] Klin Med (Mosk). 1991;69(4):90-91.
73. Ebrall P. Towards better teaching about the vertebral subluxation complex. Chiro J Aust. 2009;39(4):165-170.
74. Banks RJ. Communication Jan.26. 1996.
75. Slosberg M. Effects of altered afferent articular input on sensation, proprioception, muscle tone and sympathetic reflex responses. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1988;11(5):400-408.
76. Terrett AGJ. Misuse of the literature by medical authors in discussing spinal manipulative therapy injury. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1995;18:203-210.
77. Yi-Kai L, Yun-Kun Z, Shi-Zhen Z. Diagnostic value of signs of subluxation of cervical vertebrae with radiological examination. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998;21(9):617-620.
78. Taylor JM. The use and abuse of local support also motor re-education in human readjustment or orthokinetics. Med Record. 1922;101(5):177-182.
79. Pickar JG. Neurophysiological effects of spinal manipulation. Spine J. 2002;2(5):357-371.
80. Côte P, Mior SA, Fitz-Ritson D. Cervicogenic vertigo: A report of three cases. J Can Chiropr Assoc 1991;35:89-94.
81. Faridi TJ. Spinal manipulation and visceral disease. A model for 21st century healthcare. Sdi Systems Inc, Dallas Texas. 1995.
82. Inglis BD. Chiropractic in New Zealand: Report of the Commission of Inquiry. Wellington, NZ: PD Hasselberg, Government Printer. 1979:4.
83. Schafer RC. The lumbar and sacral areas. In: Symptomology and differential diagnosis. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Lumbar_and_Sacral_Areas.html
84. Crawford C. A discussion paper on the use of the term “subluxation” in chiropractic clinical practice. [Unpublished] 1992;August 27.
85. Anon. Treatment for posterior first and second cervical joint dysfunction. Salem Bulletin. Salem Industries. Circa 1993.
86. Buchanan TS, Lloyd DG, Manal K, Besier TF. Neuromusculoskeletal modelling: estimation of muscle forces and joint moments and movements from measurements of neural command. J Appl Biomech. 204;20(4):367-395.
87. Kharbat P. The art of medicine. www.theartofmedicine.us/osteopathic.html
88. Colli R, Biagiotti I, Sterpe A. [Osteopathy in neonatology.] Pediatr Med Chir. 2003;25(2):101-105.
89. Schafer RC. (Ed) The cervical spine. In: Motion palpation. 2nd ed. Cincinnati. The Motion Palpation Institute & ACA Press. www.motionpalpation.org/
90. Flesia JM.The vertebral subluxation complex Part II: an outline. ICA Review 1992;48:19-23.
91. Noone P. Personal correspondence. May 30th 2006.
92. Biedermann F, M.D. Fundamentals on chiropractic from the standpoint of a medical doctor. Davenport, IA, ICRC. 1954.
93. Pate D. Subluxation is a radiographic entity. Dynamic Chiropr. 1993;11(7). www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=42189
94. Kovacs A. Subluxation and deformation of the cervical apopyseal joints: a contribution to the etiology of headache. Acta Radiol 1955;43:11-16.
95. Collings JS. Techniques of manipulation. Med J Aust. 1960;July 9:55-60.
96. Jackson R. The cervical syndrome. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. 3rd. edn., 1966;131.
97. Olafsdottir E, Forshei S, Fluge G, Markestad T. Randomised controlled trial of infantile colic treated with chiropractic spinal manipulation. Arch Diseases Children 2001;84(2):138-141.
98. Slosberg M. Validating chiropractic. Cutting-edge research to improve patient outcomes. Lecture Notes. Melbourne. February, 2005.
99. DeFranca GG, Levine LJ. The T4 syndrome. J Manip Physiol Ther 1995;18(1):34-37.
100. Shepherd W. Dysponesis-dyskinesia-dysautonomia. Dynamic Chiropr. 2000;18(17). www.chiroweb.com/archives/18/17/21.htm
101. Smith RK. Therapeutic possibilities of manual adjustment. New York Med J 1913; March 22:602-5.
102. Conley RN, Croft AC, Delitto A, Erhard RE, Mior SAS, Tarola GA, et al., Grand rounds: Cervical pain and dizziness in a patient with a hypermobile cervical motion segment. JNMS 1996;4:30-39.
103. Schafer RC. (Ed). Radiological manifestations of spinal subluxations. IN: Basic chiropractic procedural manual. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Radiologic_Manifestations.html
104. Kirkaldy-Willis WH. Ed. Managing low back pain. New York. Churchill Livingstone. 1988.
105. Darrer D. Personal communication. Aug 2,1993.
106. Shreeve MW, LaRose JR. Chiropractic care of a patient with thoracic outlet syndrome and arrhythmia, J Chiropr Med 2011;10(2):130-134.
107. Hulse M. Disequilibrium caused by a functional disturbance of the upper cervical spine: Clinical aspects and differential diagnosis. Man Med 1983;1:18-23.
108. Jirout J. Correlations of the functional disturbances in the cervical spine as seen roentgenographically in the frontal and sagittal projections. Acta Univ Carol. 1965(Suppl);21:128-129,
109. Liebenson C. Assessment and treatment of functional pathology of the motor system. Dynamic Chiropr. 1995;13(24). www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=40548
110. Grice AS. Seminar Lecture Topic Advancements in Chiropractic. In brochure: Celebrating Chiropractic Toronto. Canadian Memorial Chiropr College Sept 15-18, 1995.
111. Crawford C. Subluxation is in – joint dysfunction is out. (Letter). Melbourne. Chiropr Assn Aust (Vic). Your Voice. 1992:18:10-11.
112. Dulhunty JA. A mathematical basis for defining vertebral subluxations and their correction Chiropr J Aust 1996;26(4):130-138.
113. Good AB. Spinal joint blocking. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1985;8(1):1-8.
114. Meloche JP, Bergeron Y, Bellavance A, et al. Painful intervertebral dysfunction: Robert Maigne's original contribution to headache of cervical origin. Headache 1993;33:328-334.
115. Terrett AGJ, Terrett RG. Referred posterior thoracic pain of cervical dorsal rami origin: a cause of much misdirected treatment. RMIT.ARTICLES.ROLFONE.DOC. 2001
116. Gukelberger M. The uncomplicated port-traumatic cervical syndrome. Scand J Rehab Med. 1972;4:150-153.
117. Canadian Chiropractic Association. Clinical guidelines for chiropractic practice in Canada. Proceedings of a Consensus conference commissioned by the CCA. Commonly known as the 'Glenerin Document' 1995. pp91.
118. Seaman DR. Winterstein JF. Dysafferentation: a novel term to describe the neuropathophyciological effects of joint complex dysfunction. A look at likely mechanisms of symptom generation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1998;21(4):267-280.
119. Northup GW. History of the development of osteopathic concepts; osteopathic terminology. Appendix. The research status of spinal manipulative therapy. US Dept HEW. NINCDS Monograph # 15. 1975. p43-51.
120. Keating JC, Charlton KH, Grod JP, Perle SM, Sikorski D, Winterstein JF. Subluxation: dogma or science? Chiropr Osteopat. 2005;10:13-17. (Interestingly, this paper mentions ‘subluxation’ over 100 times.)
121. Repka A, Ebrall P, Draper B. Failure to use vertebral subluxation complex as a diagnostic term: a flaw of reductionist diagnosis with resultant compromise of student and patient outcomes in chiropractic teaching clinics. Chiropr J Aust. 2007;37(3):84-91.
122. Wood KW. Acute torticollis” chiropractic therapy and management. Chiropr Tech. 1991;3(3):105-108.
123. Vear H. An introduction to the science of chiropractic. Portland, Or. Western States Supply Centre. 1981:250.
124. Dulhunty J. Personal communication, email. June 13th 2005
125. Uhlig Y, Weber BR, Grob D, Münter M. Fibre composition and fibre transformations in neck muscles of patients with dysfunction of the cervical spine. J Orthop Res 1995;13(2):240-249.
126. Grieve EFM. Mechanical dysfunction of the sacro-iliac joint. Int. Rehab. Med. 1983;5:46-52.
127. Bogduk N. Headaches and cervical manipulation. Med J Aust 1979;July28, 65-66.
128. McGill SM, Jones K, Bennett G, Bishop PJ. Passive stiffness of the human neck in flexion, extension, and lateral bending. Clin Biomech 1994;9(3):193-198.
129. Parker G, Pryor D, Tupling H. Point of view. New Zealand inquiry into chiropractic. Med J Aust 1980;1:103-5.
130. Boissonnault WG, Bass C. Pathological origins of trunk and neck pain: Part 1 - pelvic and abdominal visceral disorders. JOSPT 1990;12(5):192-207.
131. Schafer RC. Cervical spine trauma. Monograph 22. www.chiro.org/rc_schafer/Monograph_22.shtml.
132. Yochum TR, Rowe LJ. Essentials of skeletal radiology. Vol 1. 1st ed. Baltimore. Williams and Wilkins. 1987.
133. Lohse-Busch M. Atlas therapy and functional troubles of respiration. J Man Med 1989;4(3):110-120.
134. Rome PL. Anterior T6 Subluxation syndrome: Neurospinal dysfunction with a vertebral subluxation complex. Chiropr J Aust; 2000;40(4):127-137.
135. Maigne R. The concept of painful minor intervertebral dysfunction. www.sofmmoo.com/english_section/divers/dim.pdf. (Undated).
136. Anon. What is manual therapy? Physical Therapy - Sports Performance International. www.sportsperformanceint.com/services/physical-therapy/cation’ 13.6.2005.
137. Stiles EG. Manipulation: A tool for your practice? Patient Care 1984;18(9):16.
138. Bolton PS. What do lab-based neurophysiological studies in animals tell us about the chiropractor’s vertebral subluxation hypothesis? Chiropractic Research Seminar. Macquarie University. March 26th 2013. chiro.mq.edu.au/.../Philip_Bolton_Lab-based_neurophysiological_studies.
139. Abbott JH, Fritz JM, McCane , et al. Lumbar segmental mobility disorders: comparison of two methods of defining abnormal displacement kinematics in a cohort of patients with non-specific mechanical low back pain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2006:7(45):doi:10.1186/1471-2474-7-45.
140. Mootz RD. Chiropractic care parameters for common industrial low back conditions. Chiropractic Technique 1993;5(3):119-125.
141. Chance MA, Peters RE. A time for choices: polemics, procrastination or progress. (Editorial) Chiro J Aust 1992;22(1):1.
142. Flesia JM. The vertebral subluxation complex: an integrative perspective. ICA Internat Rev Chiropr. 1992;48:25-27.
143. Blomberg S, Hallin G, Grann K, Berg E, Sennerby U. Manual therapy with steroid injections - A new approach to treatment of low back pain: A controlled multicenter trial with an evaluation by orthopaedic surgeons. Spine 1994;19(5):569.
144. Epstein D. Network spinal analysis (Seminar Brochure) April 1996. Innate Intelligence, Inc. Longmont Colorado.
145. Littlejohn G. Soft tissue rheumatism today. Modern Medicine. 1992;82-94.
146. Henderson DJ. Significance of vertebral dyskinesia in relation to the cervical syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1979;2:3-15.
147. Mohr U, Schimek JJ. Fusion disturbances in the eye in consequence of vertebrogenic dysfunctions in the upper head joint area. Man Med 1984;22:2-4.
148. McNair JFS. Acute locking of the cervical spine. In: Grieve G, ed. Modern Manual Therapy of the Vertebral Column. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1986.
149. Krausová L, Lewit K. The mechanism and the measuring of the motility of the craniocervical joints during lateral inclinations. Acta Univ Carol Univ 1965;21:123-126.
150. Warbasse JP. Subluxation of vertebrae. In Surgical Treatment. A practical Treatise on the Therapy of Surgical Diseases for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Surgery. Vol 1. WB Saunders Co, Phil. 1918.
151. Pathria MN, Petersilge CA. Spinal trauma. Radiological Clinics of North Am 1991;29(4):847-865.
152. Kraft GL, Levinthal DH. Facet synovial impingement: a new concept in the etiology of lumbar vertebral derangement. Surg Gynec Obst 1951;93:439-43.
153. Kurnik JD. The cervical spine and sacral counternutation. Dynamic Chiropractic 2009;27(19).
154. Schmorl G, Junghanns H. The human spine in health and disease. 2nd ed. New York: Grune & Stratton:1971.
155. Becker AD. Mobilizing the thorax. J Am Osteop Assoc. 1928;Jan:140-141.
156. Painter FM. What is the chiropractic subluxation. www.chiro.org/LINKS/subluxation.shtml.
157. Jirout J. The effect of mobilisation of the segmental blockade on the sagittal component of the reaction on lateroflexion of the cervical spine. Neuroradiology 1972;3:210-215.
158. Schafer RC. Ed. General causes and potential effects of the subluxation complex. In Basic principles of chiropractic neuroscience. ACA Press. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/General_Causes_and_Potential_Effects.html
159. Wilson GA. Spinatology. The dynamics of the cause and correction of subluxations. Pub: The Standard Research Laboratories, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1956;24-26.
160. Taylor JAM, Hughes TH, Resnick DC. Skeletal radiology of the spine and extremities. 2nd ed. Maryland Heights, Miss. Sanders Elsevier. 2010.
161. Baer WS. Sacro-iliac strain. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 1917;19:370-373.
162. Biedermann H. Kinematic imbalances due to suboccipital strain in newborn. Man Med 1992;6(5):151-156.
163. Burns LM. Early pathogenesis following vertebral strain. JAOA 1946;46(2)Oct:103-106.
164. Capistrant TD. Thoracic outlet syndrome in cervical strain injury. Minn Med 1986;69(1):13-17.
165. Feld M. Leurs syndrome - functional subluxations and strains following head trauma. (Subluxations et entorse sousoccipitales Leurs syndrome fonctionel cons‚cutif aux traumatismes craniens.) Semaine des Hópitaux 1954;30:1952.
166. LeBoeuf C, Grant BR, Maginnes GS, et al. Chiropractic treatment of repetitive strain injuries: a preliminary prospective outcome study of SMT verses SMT combined with massage. J Aust Chiro Assoc 1987;17(1):11-4.
167. Pfeiffer ST. The disturbance of spinal statics and dynamics in workers subjected to excessive overstrain of the axial organ. Acta Universitatis Carolinae (Med) Suppl 1965;21:37-38.
168. Ito M, Tedano S, Kaneda K. A biomechanical definition of spinal segmental instability taking personal and disc level differences into account. Spine 1993;18(15):2295-2304.
169. Boissonnault WG, Bass C. Pathological origins of trunk and neck pain: Part 1 - pelvic and abdominal visceral disorders. JOSPT 1990;12(5):192-207.
170. Hadley LA. Anatomico-roentgenographic studies of the spine. 3rd printing. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas:1976.p 142
171. Flore P, Obert P, Courteix D, et al. Influence of a biokinergia session on cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptations of trained subjects. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1998;21(9):621-628.
172. Haas M, Peterson D. A roentgenological evaluation of the relationship between segmental motion and malalignment in lateral bending. J Manip Physiol Ther 1992;15:350-360.
173. Fuhr AW. Is the public being manipulated. Update [Newsletter]. 1995;10(5):24-30.
174. Schafer RC. Body alignment, posture and gait. In: Clinical biomechanics: Musculoskeletal actions and reactions. 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Body_Alignment.html.
175. Beckwith CG. Pelvic mechanics. JAOA 1944;43(12):549-552.
176. Schafer RC. Introduction to the dynamic chiropractic paradigm. In: Motion palpation. 2nd edn. The Motion Palpation Institute & ACA Press. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Introduction_to_Dynamic_Chiropractic.html
177. Innes K. "What if.." Dynamic Chiropractic 1993;11(12):21.
178. Bakkum BW, Cramer GD, Henderson CNR, Hong S-P. Does subluxation affect the nervous system? Preliminary morphologic evidence that it does. J Chiropr Educ 2006;20:1-2.
179. Butterworth's Medical Dictionary.Critchley M. Ed. 2nd Edition. London. 1978, p1621.
180. Dvořák J, Dvořák V. Differential diagnosis and definition of the radicular and spondylogenic (nonradicular) pain syndrome. pp. 27-45. In: Dvorak J, Dvorak V. Manual Medicine: Diagnostics. New York: Thieme Stratton, 1984.
181. Schafer RC. Ed. Radiologic manifestations of spinal subluxations. In: Basic chiropractic procedural manual. Chapter 6 www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Radiologic_Manifestations
182. Keller TS, Colloca C, BéLiveau J-G. Force-deformation response of the lumbar spine: a sagittal plane model of posteroanterior manipulation and mobilization. Clin Biomech 2002;17:185-196.
183. Young JK. Sacro-iliac displacement. Am J Med Sci. 1912;CXLIV:94-103.
184. Hing WA, Reid DA, Monaghan M. Manipulation of the cervical spine. Man Ther 2003;8(1):2-9.
185. Schafer RC. Ed. Neck and cervical spine injuries. In.Chiropractic management of sports and recreational injuries. 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Neck_and_Cervical_Spine_Injuries.html.
186. Goldthwait JE. The lumbo-sacral articulation, an explanation of many cases of `lumbago', `sciatica' and paraplegia. Boston Medical and Surgical J. Mar. 1911;CLXIV(11):365-372.
187. Herbst RW. Gonstead chiropractic science and healing art. Mt Horeb, Wi: Sci-Chi Publishers;1968. [Cited by Lantz66]
188. Gongal'skii VV, Kuftyreva TP. [Vascular and autonomic disorders of the spinal cord in dystopia of the spinal motor segment.] (Russian LA) Neirofiziologiia (Ukraine) 1992;24(6):667-72.
189. McGregor M, Mior S. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part II: the “hypermobile” cervical spine. J Canad Chiropr Assoc 1989;33(4):177-183.
190. Giles LGF, Singer KP. Clinical anatomy and management of low back pain. Vol 1.Jordan Hill, Oxford. 1997. p398.
191. Churchill's Illustrated medical dictionary. Churchill Livingstone, New York. 1989.
192. Schamberger W. The malignment syndrome. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 2013
193. Bates ME. Conditions of mal-alignment of the cervical vertebrae and their ocular significance. Am Medicine (New Series) 1909;IV:6. (Cited in Weiant CW, Goldschmidt S. Medicine and chiropractic. Self Published 1966, pp29.)
194. Janse J, Houser RH, Wells BF. Chiropractic principles and technic. National College of Chiropractic Chicago, Illinois, 1947;52.
195. Penning L. Functional pathology of the cervical spine. Gröningen, the Netherlands. Excerpta Medica Foundation Amsterdam 1968.
196. Swischuk. Anterior displacement of C2 in children: Physiologic or pathologic? A helpful differentiating line. Pediatric Radiology 1977;122:759-763.
197. Ono K, Yonenobo K, Fuji T, Okada K. Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation - radiographic study of its mechanism. Spine 1985;10(7):602-608.
198. Schafer RC. Basic spinal subluxation considerations. Chapter 18.. In Chiropractic management of sports and recreational injuries. 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Basic_Spinal_Subluxation_Considerations.html
199. Lomax E. Manipulative therapy: A historical perspective from ancient times to the modern era. In:Goldstein M, Ed. The research status of spinal manipulative therapy. US Dept Health Education Welfare. NINCDS Monograph 15:1975;11-17.
200. Singh B. Personal communication. (Report). Aug 3, 1993.
201. Treleaven J, Jull G, Atkinson L. Cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction in post-concussion headache. Cephalalgia 1994;14:273-279.
202. Gudgel JW. Neuromuscular dysfacilitation. Wherever the pelvis goes, the body must follow. Activator Vision. 2001;16(1):12-15
203. Johnson DB. Seminar lecture. Renaissance International, San Francisco. April 11/12, 1985.
204. Hammer W. Neuropathy and spondylosis. Dynamic Chiropr. 1993;31(10:21,37.
205. Don Tigny RL. Functions and pathomechanics of the sacroiliac joint. Phys Ther 1985;65:35-44
206. Keating J, Charlton KH, Grod JP. Perle SM. Sikorski D, Winterstein JF. Subluxation dogma or science? Chiropr Osteop 2005;13doi:10.1186/1746-13-17.
207. Kent C, Gentempo P. Dysponesis: chiropractic in a word. The Chiropractic J. 1994;Sept:14. www.subluxation.com/dysponesis-chiropractic-in-a-word/‎
208. Seaman D. Subluxation:cause and effects. Dynamic Chiropr. 1996;14(3):1-2.
209. Friedman MHF. Integration and modulation of cerebrolimbic, somatic and visceral reflexes and responses. J Am Osteopathic Assoc 1984;84(2):225.
210. Hunziker AJ. Early Chiropractic Care | American Chiropractic and Rehabilitation. american-chiropractic.net/chiropractic-reference/early-chiropractic-care
211. Stump JL. The neuroarticular lesion in the elderly: a condensed literature review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004;27(7):e10-e28.
212. Fuhr AW. The activator method. St Louis. Elsevier – Health Services Division. 2008. p 27.
213. Homewood. AE. The neurodynamics of the vertebral subluxation. Self Published. 1963.
214. Holtzman DA. Prospective case series on the effects of lumbosacral manipulation on dysmenorrhea. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2008;31(3):237-246.
215. Friberg R.Cervical Spine Evaluation and Treatment- A Neuromechanical Perspective. www.healthclick.com/courses/nas47.cfm
216. Kamei K. The reliability and validity of surface electromyography to study the functional status of the lumbar paraspinal muscles. RMIT Research Repository. RMIT University. 2008. researchbank.rmit.edu.au/eserv/rmit:6711/Kamei.pdf
217. Sabbahi M. Coupling testing & treatment of lumbosacral & cervical spine pain using h-reflex studies: saving patients spine surgeries. Texas Woman’s University, School of Physical Therapy & Texas Electrophysiology Services, houston, texas. www.aptasce-wm.org/wp-content/uploads/.../coupling_testing.pdf (Undated)
218. Blashy MRM. Manipulation of the neuromuscular unit via the periphery of the central nervous system. Southern Med J 1961;54:873-879.
219. Lantz CA. The vertebral subluxation complex. Part 2. The neuropathological and myopathological components. Chiropr Research J. 1990;1(4):19-38.
220. Budgell B. A neurophysiological rationale for the chiropractic management of visceral disorders. Course Notes. Melbourne. Feb 15th, 1998, p 6.
221. Schafer RC. Specific potentialities of the subluxation complex. In: Basic principles of chiropractic neuroscience. ACA Press. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Specific_Potentialities.html
222. Mein EA, Richards DG, McMillin DL, McPartland JM, Nelson CD. Physiologic regulation through manual therapy. Phys Med Rehabil: State of Art Reviews 2000;14(1):27-42..
223. Pollard H. The somatovisceral reflex: how important for the ‘type O’ condition. Chiropr J Aust. 2004;34(3):93-102.
224. Wark D. Spinal irritation. Am J Med Sci.1831;IX:202-12.
225. Sunderland S, Bradley KC Stress-strain phenomena in human spinal nerve roots. Brain 1961;84:120-124.
226. Souza T. Athletic headache. Dynamic Chiropr. 1996;18(11). www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=39184.
227. Hill LC. Section of physical medicine. Proceedings of the Royal Society Medicine. 1949;XLII:417-420.
228. Hildebrandt RW. Chiropractic spinography. A manual of technology and interpretation. Wheaton, Illinois. Hilmark. 1980.
229. Trostler IS. Slipping sacro-iliac joints. Radiology 1938;31:363-4.
230. Goldthwait JE. The pelvic articulations: A consideration of their anatomic, physiologic, obstetric and general surgical importance. JAMA. 1907;XLIX(9):768-774.
231. Greenman PE. Innominate shear dysfunction in the sacroiliac syndrome. Man Med. 1986;2:114-121.
232. Schmidt HJA. Sacroiliac diagnosis and treatment 1978-82. Manual Medicine. 1984;1:33-38.
233. Beal MC. The sacroiliac problem: Review of anatomy, mechanics and diagnosis. J Amer Osteop Assn 1982;81(10):73-85
234. Williams PL, Warwick R. Eds. Gray's Anatomy. 34th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1980. p477.
235. Ward S. Personal communication March 6, 1996.
236. Vleeming A, Albert HB, Ostgaard HC, Sturesson B, Stuge B. European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. Eur Spine J. 2008;17(6):794-819. doi: 10.1007/s00586-008-0602-4. (Also at: Vleeming A, Albert HB, Östgaard HC, Stuge B, Sturesson B. WG4 pelvic girdle pain. Concept version. European guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. http://.backpaineurope.org/web/files/WG4_Guidelines.pdf. Undated. Circa 2004.)
237. Crisp EJ. Disc lesions and other interpretable derangements. Livingstone, Edinburgh. 1960.
238. Adams JC. Outline of orthopaedics. Churchly Livingstone Edinburgh. 7th.ed. 1971.
239. Tonomura Y, Kataoka H, Sugie K, Hirabayashi H, Ueno S. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation associated with cervical dystonia. Spine 2997;32(19):E562-564.
240. Hviid H. Functional radiology of the cervical spine. Swiss Annals Chiropr 1965;3:37-65.
241. Pitkin HC. Sacrathrogenic telalgia V. A plan for treatment. J Bone Joint Surg 1937;XIX(1):169-184.
242. Ligeros KA. How ancient healing governs modern therapeutics. New York GP Putnam’s Sons. 1937:476 [Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing Whitefish Montana. (Undated)]
243. Fox D. On bone-setting (so called). Lancet 1882;Nov 18:843-845.
244. Anderson RT. On doctors and bonesetters in the 16th and 17th century. Chiropr Hist. 1983;3(1):1-5.
245. Rowe DE, Feise RJ, Crowther ER, et al. Chiropractic manipulation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a pilot study. Chiropr Man Ther. 2006;14(15) doi:10.1186/1746-1340-14-15.
246. De Hesse P. Chirotherapy: a text on joint movement. Hastings, GB. Nielsen BookScans. 1987
247. Spencer JE. An Olympian’s approach to treating sports injuries. J Am Chiropr Assoc 1997;34(6):23-26,85.
248. Mootz RD. Chiropractic care parameters for common industrial low back conditions. Chiropractic Technique 1993;5(3):119-125.
249. Petersen DM. Going from straight to mixer? Dynamic Chiropractic 2001;19(7):3. (Citing WCA document “Letter from WCA President Terry Ronberg to Ms Mary Gerwin, Senior Advisor for Health Affairs, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defence for Health Affairs. http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org/whatsnew/dod-new-letter.htm)
250. Keller TS, Colloca C, BéLiveau J-G. Force-deformation response of the lumbar spine: a sagittal plane model of posteroanterior manipulation and mobilization. Clin Biomech 2002;17:185-196.
251. O’Sullivan PB, Beales DJ, Beetham JA, et al. Altered motor control strategies in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain during the active straight-leg-raise test. Spine 2002;27(1):E1-8
252. Anon. American Osteopathic Association protocols of osteopathic manipulative treatment. (OMT). files.academyofosteopathy.org/.../AOAProtocolsOMT.pdf.
253. Lewit K. The problem of manual reflex neurotherapy. Weiner Medizinische Wochenschrift 1971;23:473-477.
254. Elmslie RC. Manipulative surgery. Postgrad Med J. 1937;13:344-348.
255. Mennell J. Joint pain diagnosis in treatment using manipulative techniques. 1st ed. Boston: Little Brown & Co; 1965.
256. Mennell J. The manipulative treatment of disease. The Practitioner. 1934;132:166-179.
257. Anon (Abo S. Program Director. AOA Internship Program. School of Health and Medical Sciences. Seton Hall University. South Orange, NJ. Undated. www.shu.edu › Academics › School of Health and Medical Sciences.
258. Svatko LG, Ivanichev GA, Sobol IL. [Manual treatment of impaired hearing associated with cervical spine pathology.] Vestn Otolaringol 1987;2:28-31.
259. Ottosson A. The manipulated history of manipulation of spines and joints? Rethinking orthopaedic medicine through the 19th century discourse of European mechanical medicine. Medicine Studies. 2011;3(2):83-116.
260. Anon. A new direction in healthcare. International Alliance of Healthcare Education. www.iahe.com. 2013.
261. Wood T. Personal correspondence. July 24th, 1998.
262. “Editorial Staff”. Chiropractic strikes American Medical Association out in Supreme Court. Dynamic Chiropr. 1990;8(26). www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=45524
263. Zeigler R, Carpenter D. The chiropractic approach to the treatment of asthma: A literature review. ACA J Chiro 1992;June:71-73.
264. Anon. Neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation. Postgraduate certificate in neuromusculoskeletal rehabilitation. Perth, Murdoch University. www.murdoch.edu.au › Handbook › Courses. 2013.
265. Schafer RC. Peripheral nerve injuries. In: Chiropractic management of sports and recreational injuries. 2nd edn. Williams & Wilkins.
266. www.chiro.org/ACAPress/Peripheral_Nerve_Injutries.html.
267. Campbell SM, Winkelmann RR, Walkowski S. Osteopathic manipulative treatment: novel application to dermatological disease. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol, 2012;5(10):24-32.
268. Anon. Osteopathic manipulative treatment. Am Osteop Assoc. www.osteopathic.org › AOA › Osteopathic Medicine and Your Health. (Undated)
269. Collins FW. Original osteopathic moves taught by Doctor Andrew Taylor Still to Doctor Charles F Haverin. 9th Ed. , Mokelumne, CA Health Research. (Reprint. Undated)
270. Deboer KF, Harmon R, Tuttle CD, Wallace H. Reliability study of detection of somatic dysfunctions in the cervical spine. JMPT 1985;8(1):9-16.
271. Bourdillon JF, Day EA. Spinal manipulation. 4th edn. Oxford. Heinemann Medical Books. 1988.
272. Reid SA, Rivett DA, Katekar MG, Callister R. Sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGS) are an effective treatment fo cervical dizziness. Man Ther. 2008;13(4):357-366.
273. Hearn A. Rivett DA. Cervical SNAGS: a biomechanical analysis. Man Ther 2002;7(2):71-79.
274. van Duijn J, van Duijn AJ, Nitsch W. Orthopaedic manual physical therapy including thrust manipulation and exercise in the management of a patient with cervicogenic headache: a case report. J Man Manip Ther. 2007;15(1):10-24.
275. Sillevis R. Autonomic dysfunction - a conceptual model: The effects of physical therapeutic manipulation targeting the T3-T4 segment on the autonomic nervous system. (Dissertation) Ann Arbour, Mi. Nova Southwest University, College of Applied Health and Nursing. Physical Therapy Department. 2008.
276. Haldeman S. Principles and practice of chiropractic. 2nd edn. Norwalk, Conn. Appleton & Lange. 1992. p460.
277. Maitland GD, Hengeveld E, Banks K, English K. Vertebral manipulation. London. Butterworth-Heinemann. 2006.
278. Arlen’s atlas therapy. www.amm-rheintalklinik.com/amm06/EN/.../atlastherapie_en.php
279. Prescott D. Biofunctional medicine - What's That. Dynamic Chiropr 1998;Sept 21:13.
280. Kochoa P. Spine biokinetics. www.biokineticspt.com/blog/tag/spine.
281. Shacklock M. Clinical neurodynamics. London. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2005.
282. Popelyanski YU. Vertebrogenous diseases of the nervous system.. Kazan 1974.
283. Carb GJ. Risk/benefit analysis of spinal manipulation therapy for relief of lumbar or cervical pain – a closer look. Dynamic Chiropr. 1993;11(20). www.dynamicchiropractic.com/mpacms/dc/article.php?id=42557
284. Biedermann H. Kinematic Imbalances due to sub-occipital strain in newborn infants. J Manipulative Medicine (1992):151-156.
285. Ligeros KA. How ancient healing governs modern therapeutics. New York GP Putnam’s Sons. 1937:476 [Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing Whitefish Montana. (Undated)]
286. Atchison JW, Newman RL, Klim GV. Interest in manual medicine among residents in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med 1995;74:439-443.
287. Svatko LG, Ivanichev GA, Sobol IL. Manual treatment of impaired hearing associated with cervical spine pathology. Vestn Otolaringol 1987;2:28-31. (Russian)
288. Arkuskewski Z. The efficacy of manual treatment in low back pain: a clinical trial. Man Med. 1986;2:68–71.
289. Bryce A. Mechano-therapy in disease: with special reference to osteopathy. BMJ 1920;Sept 3:581-584.
290. De Coninck S. (Chairman) European Teaching Group of Orthopaedic Medicine Cyriax → Cyriax Orthopaedic Medicine Modern Orthopaedic Manual Therapy - Musculoskeletal Medicine Orthopaedic Medicine Cyriax: a bit oldfashioned or rather modern ? De Haan – Belgium. 2013. www.cyriax.eu/.../modern-orthopaedic-manual-therapy-musculoskeletal
291. Van Buskirk RL. Osteopathy: what is old is new again. 2010. www.vanbuskirkosteopathic.com/drrichardvanbuskirkinthenews.htm‎
292. Dvorak J, Gilliar WG. Musculoskeletal manual medicine: diagnosis and treatment. Stuttgart. Thieme.2008.
293. von Roques KR. [Organization of neural therapy procedures according to the order of importance. Hippokrates. 1957;28(24):772-774.
294. DeSambucy. The new vertebral medicine of all chronic disease. [Nouvelle medicine vertebrale de toutes maladies.] Cited in: Gitelman R, Murdoch GG, Embree BE, Dyck VG. The archives: An anthology of literature relative to the science of chiropractic. Abstracts Vol 1. Toronto. Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Circa 1982.
295. Patijn J. Complications in manual medicine: A review of the literature. Manual Medicine 1991; 6: 89-92.
296. van Duijn J, van Duijn AJ, Nitsch W. Orthopaedic manual physical therapy including thrust manipulation and exercise in the management of a patient with cervicogenic headache: a case report. J Man Manip Ther. 2007;15(1):10-24.
297. Salamon E, Zhu W, Stefano GB. Nitric oxide as a possible mechanism for understanding the therapeutic effect of osteopathic manipulative medicine (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2004;14(3):443-449.
298. Rogers JT, Rogers JC. The role of osteopathic manipulative therapy in the treatment of coronary heart disease. J Am Osteop Assoc. 1976;76(1):21-31.
299. Cohen-Lewe A. Osteopathic manipulative treatment for colonic inertia. 2013.113(3):216-220.
300. Still AT. Autobiography of Andrew T Still.Nabu Press. Charlston SC. 2010. (Reprint)
301. Geiringer SR, deLateur BJ. Physiatric therapeutics. 3. Traction, manipulation, and massage. Arch Phys Med rehab. 1990;71(4-S):S264-S266.
302. Anon. Washington University Physicians. Washington University School of Medicine. St Louis. wuphysicians.wustl.edu › Physiatry
303. Anon. Physiatry manipulation posters and art prints. www.artflakes.com/en/l/physiatry/manipulation. 2013.
304. Okulov MM. Efficacy of manual therapy for the pathology of internal organs. In: Manual Therapy in vertebroneurology. Novokuznetzk, 1990:184-186.
305. Pettman E. A history of manipulative therapy. J Man Manip Ther. 2007;15(3):165-174.
306. Rowe P, Fontaine KR, Violand RL. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome: hypothesis and conceptual model. Front. Physiol. 2013; doi: 10.3389/fphys.2013.00115.
307. Schneider M, Haas M, Glick R, Stevens J, Landsittel D. Comparison of spinal manipulation methods and usual medical care for acute and subacute low back pain: a randomised clinical trial. Spine. 2015;40(4):209-217.
308. What is veterinary chiropractic. British Veterinary Chiropractic Association. http://bvca-uk.org/veterinary-chiropractic/
309. Parry AT, Upjohn MM, Schlegl K, Kneissl S, Lamb CR. Computed tomography variations in morthology of the canine atlas in dogs with and without atlantoaxial subluxation. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010;51(6):596-600.
310. Gutmann G. Blocked atlantal nerve syndrome in babies and infants. Man Med 1987;25:5-10.
311. Gutmann G. The blocked atlas nerve syndrome in babies and infants. Translated and published in ICA International Review of Chiropractic. 1990;46(4):37-43. From: [Gutmann G. Das atlas-blockierungs-syndrom des sauglings und des kleinkindes. Man. Med 1987;25:5-10.
312. Sprague RB. The acute cervical joint block. Phys Ther. 1983;63(9):1439-1344.
313. Bidstrup I. Spinal Vet. http://www.spinalvet.com.au/about.html.
314. Maler MM. Overview of veterinary chiropractic and its use in pediatric exotic patients.Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2012;15(2):299-310.
315. Treleaven J Jull G, Sterling M. Dizziness and unsteadiness following whiplash injury: characteristic features and relationship with cervical joint position error. J Rehabil Med. 2003. 35(1):36-43.
316. De Vries J, Ischebeck BK, Voogt LP, et al. Joint position sense error in people with neck pain: AS systematic review. Man Ther. 2015; pii: S1356-689X(15)00106-X. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2015.04.015
317. Miyazaki S. A simple practical method for evaluating overall measurement error of joint moments obtained by force plate and a position sensing device. Front Med Biol Eng. 1992;4(4):257-270.
318. Franz B, Altidis P. Altidis B, Collis-Brown G. The cervicogenic otoocular syndrome: A suspected forerunner of Ménière’s disease. Internat Tinnitus J. 1999;5(2):1250139.
319. Sato A, Sato Y, Schmidt RF. The impact of somatosensory input on autonomic functions. In: Reviews of Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Blaustein MP et al Eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1997;v130.
320. Alix ME, Bates DK. A proposed aetiology of cervicogenic headache: the neurophysiologic basis and anatomic relationship between dura mater and rectus posterior capitis minor muscle. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999;22(8):534-539.
321. Bogduk N. The anatomical basis for cervicogenic headache. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992;15(1):67-70.
322. Rome PL. Commentary: medical evidence recognising the vertebral subluxation complex. 2016;44(4):303-307.
323. https://phpartners.org/tutorial/04-ebph/2-keyConcepts/images/
324. https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/imgs/512/154/3168054/PMC3168054_IJSTD-30-112-g001.png.
325. Law SL. You Can Prove a Negative. Can't prove a negative? Sure you can! https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/believing-bull/201109/you-can-prove-negative.
326. Hales SD. Thinking tools: you can prove a negative. Think.2005;10:109-112. https://departments.bloomu.edu/philosophy/pages/content/hales/articlepdf/proveanegative.pdf.
327. http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/M99.1.
328. Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary. 24th edition. Philadelphia. WB Saunders Co. 1965.